Most of these meteorites have fallen onto the ice sheet in the last million years. [52] This ice sheet is constantly gaining ice from snowfall and losing ice through outflow to the sea. Antarctica contains many other mountains, on both the main continent and the surrounding islands. The flora of the continent largely consists of bryophytes. There are no countries in Antarctica but there is the Antarctic Treaty to protect Antarctica and preserve the continent for science. [181] In 2019, the ozone hole was at its smallest in the previous thirty years, due to the warmer polar stratosphere weakening the polar vortex. Military personnel or equipment are permitted only for scientific research or other peaceful purposes. Some of these claims are recognised by other countries, but many aren’t. The illegal fishing of toothfish has been increasing, with estimates of 32,000 tonnes (35,000 short tons) in 2000. [142], In September 2006 NASA satellite data revealed that the Antarctic ozone hole was larger than at any other time on record, at 2,750,000 km2 (1,060,000 sq mi). Douglas Mawson, who assumed the leadership of the Magnetic Pole party on their perilous return, went on to lead several expeditions until retiring in 1931. These are floating extensions of outflowing glaciers from the continental ice mass. The three main stipulations surrounding Antarctic land use: Antarctica's goal is for minimal human-derived human impacts and for researchers to leave no trace. Currently, the Polar Geospatial Center can image all of Antarctica at 500 mm (20 in) resolution every 45 days. [100][106], Seven hundred species of algae exist, most of which are phytoplankton. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. It contains all four of Earth's South Poles: the Geographic South Pole, the Geomagnetic South Pole, the Magnetic South Pole, and the South Pole of Rotation. Europe comprises 51 countries. During the Eocene–Oligocene extinction event about 34 million years ago, CO2 levels have been found to be about 760 ppm[67] and had been decreasing from earlier levels in the thousands of ppm. Vegetation, where it occurs, is tundra. Motion of the ice sheet tends to concentrate the meteorites at blocking locations such as mountain ranges, with wind erosion bringing them to the surface after centuries beneath accumulated snowfall. [91], The terrestrial and native all year round species appears to be the descendants of ancestors who lived in geothermally warmed environments during the last ice age, when these areas were the only places on the continent not covered by ice. There is no universally accepted answer as to how many countries in the world there actually are. The latter in its brief sojourn actually made a temporary landing; while the Wilkes expedition, though it did not make a landing, did remain long enough in the region to survey and map some 800 miles of the continent. The interior regions of the continent see temperatures of -76°F (-60°F) in the winter and -4°F (-20°C) in the summer. [55], Antarctica is home to more than 70 lakes that lie at the base of the continental ice sheet. This is a list of the countries of the world by continent, according to the United Nations Statistics Division, displayed with their respective national flags and capitals. The only anomalous area of West Antarctica is the Ellsworth Mountains region, where the stratigraphy is more similar to East Antarctica. [56], There is some evidence, in the form of ice cores drilled to about 400 m (1,300 ft) above the water line, that Lake Vostok's waters may contain microbial life. This list contains: Sovereign states (country names in bold), consisting of: . King penguins, chinstrap penguins, and gentoo penguins also breed in the Antarctic. [144], On 6 September 2007 Belgian-based International Polar Foundation unveiled the Princess Elisabeth station, the world's first zero-emissions polar science station in Antarctica to research climate change. Many countries conducted their first Antarctic explorations and constructed the first research stations on Antarctica. Most countries have a research center in Antarctica within the area claimed by them. The IGY prompted an intense period of scientific research in the Antarctic. By the start of the Devonian period (416 Ma), Gondwana was in more southern latitudes and the climate was cooler, though fossils of land plants are known from this time. Antarctica (/ænˈtɑːrtɪkə/ or /æntˈɑːrktɪkə/ (listen))[note 1] is Earth's southernmost continent. [21] Cook came within about 120 km (75 mi) of the Antarctic coast before retreating in the face of field ice in January 1773.[22]. It was never colonized due to the harsh climate and conditions, so the land remained open and free from claim disputes. During the Permian period, the land became dominated by seed plants such as Glossopteris, a pteridosperm which grew in swamps. [112] Antarctica's status is regulated by the 1959 Antarctic Treaty and other related agreements, collectively called the Antarctic Treaty System. Look at the map of Antarctica, there are no countries on this continent! This effect is offset by snow falling back onto the continent. There are a number of rivers and lakes in Antarctica, the longest river being the Onyx. More surprising are small forms of life such as sea cucumbers and free-swimming snails found in both polar oceans. Antarctic fisheries in 2000–01 reported landing 112,934 tonnes. By the end of the Cretaceous, about 66 Ma, Antarctica (then connected to Australia) still had a subtropical climate and flora, complete with a marsupial fauna. Parts of this ice sheet form moving glaciers known as ice streams, which flow towards the edges of the continent. The cooling of Antarctica occurred stepwise, as the continental spread changed the oceanic currents from longitudinal equator-to-pole temperature-equalising currents to latitudinal currents that preserved and accentuated latitude temperature differences. [1] McMurdo Station, which is the largest research station in Antarctica, is capable of housing more than 1,000 scientists, visitors, and tourists. [93] Invertebrate life includes microscopic mites like the Alaskozetes antarcticus, lice, nematodes, tardigrades, rotifers, krill and springtails. Glaciation began at the end of the Devonian period (360 Ma), as Gondwana became centred on the South Pole and the climate cooled, though flora remained. [147], Meteorites from Antarctica are an important area of study of material formed early in the solar system; most are thought to come from asteroids, but some may have originated on larger planets. Satellite images from 25 years ago seemingly show it. Belgian polar explorer Alain Hubert stated: "This base will be the first of its kind to produce zero emissions, making it a unique model of how energy should be used in the Antarctic." These are Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway and the United Kingdom. In 1985, three British scientists working on data they had gathered at Halley Station on the Brunt Ice Shelf discovered the existence of a hole in this layer. At 14,200,000 square kilometres (5,500,000 square miles), it is the fifth-largest continent and nearly twice the size of Australia. However, there is some evidence of antarctic marine glaciation during the Cretaceous period.[65]. how many countries in antarctica is one of the most frequently asked questions. The continent of Antarctica contains no countries and no country flags. The continents extremes zoomschool enchanted learning. Positioned asymmetrically around the South Pole and largely south of the Antarctic Circle, Antarctica is the southernmost continent and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean; alternatively, it may be considered to be surrounded by the southern Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans, or by the southern waters of the World Ocean. Australia currently claims the largest area. Antarctica is the southernmost continent on Earth. The common misconception that the territories claimed by various sovereign nations in Antarctica are independent countries is not correct. Endemic Antarctic fungi also include certain dung-inhabiting species which have had to evolve in response to the double challenge of extreme cold while growing on dung, and the need to survive passage through the gut of warm-blooded animals. As you know, blogging changed my life. [citation needed] Several Antarctic ice streams, which account for about 10% of the ice sheet, flow to one of the many Antarctic ice shelves: see ice-sheet dynamics. The Polar Geospatial Center uses geospatial and remote sensing technology to provide mapping services to American federally funded research teams. In the summer more than 4,000 scientists operate research stations; this number decreases to just over 1,000 in the winter. This sediment uplift was accompanied by igneous intrusions and volcanism. [120] The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (the "Madrid Protocol") was negotiated as other countries followed suit and on 14 January 1998 it entered into force. The most common system used varies from country to country. Third, the Earth is at aphelion in July (i.e., the Earth is farthest from the Sun in the Antarctic winter), and the Earth is at perihelion in January (i.e., the Earth is closest to the Sun in the Antarctic summer). Twelve countries signed the Antarctic Treaty in 1959, and thirty-eight have signed it since then. No country owns Antarctica, although several countries have claimed parts of it. In January 2015, reports emerged of a 2-kilometre (1.2 mi) circular structure, supposedly a meteorite crater, on the surface snow of King Baudouin Ice Shelf. [18] In February 1775, during his second voyage, Captain Cook called the existence of such a polar continent "probable" and in another copy of his journal he wrote: "[I] firmly believe it and it's more than probable that we have seen a part of it".[19]. The Antarctic Peninsula began to form during the Jurassic period (206–146 Ma), and islands gradually rose out of the ocean. Antarctica me Kitne Mulk hn? A major concern within this committee is the risk to Antarctica from unintentional introduction of non-native species from outside the region. Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent. Antarctic sightseeing flights (which did not land) operated out of Australia and New Zealand until the fatal crash of Air New Zealand Flight 901 in 1979 on Mount Erebus, which killed all 257 aboard. Antarctica is often called "The Frozen Continent". During the whaling era, which lasted until 1966, the population of that island varied from over 1,000 in the summer (over 2,000 in some years) to some 200 in the winter. The elapsed time since fall, or terrestrial residence age, of a meteorite represents more information that might be useful in environmental studies of Antarctic ice sheets. East Antarctica lies on the Indian Ocean side of the Transantarctic Mountains and comprises Coats Land, Queen Maud Land, Enderby Land, Mac. Antarctica is defined as all land and ice shelves south of 60° S for the purposes of the Treaty System. The most valuable resources of Antarctica lie offshore, namely the oil and natural gas fields found in the Ross Sea in 1973. [42][43][44], It was not until 31 October 1956, that anyone set foot on the South Pole again; on that day a U.S. Navy group led by Rear Admiral George J. Dufek successfully landed an aircraft there. [75] For comparison, this is 10.7 °C (20 °F) colder than subliming dry ice at one atmosphere of partial pressure, but since CO2 only makes up 0.039% of air, temperatures of less than −140 °C (−220 °F)[76] would be needed to produce dry ice snow in Antarctica. The extent of sea ice around Antarctica (in terms of square kilometers of coverage) has remained roughly constant in recent decades, although the amount of variation it has experienced in its thickness is unclear. Instead the recent increases in glacier outflow are believed to be due to an inflow of warm water from the deep ocean, just off the continental shelf. [98], A census of sea life carried out during the International Polar Year and which involved some 500 researchers was released in 2010. Despite the lack of precipitation over the central portion of the continent, ice there lasts for extended periods. East Antarctica is largely covered by the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Since Antarctica is largely uninhabited, the continent is not officially divided up into time zones. [176], A study published in Nature Geoscience in 2013 identified central West Antarctica as one of the fastest-warming regions on Earth. In 1997 Børge Ousland became the first person to make a solo crossing. [54] In 2004, a potentially active underwater volcano was found in the Antarctic Peninsula by American and Canadian researchers. West Antarctica was partially in the Northern Hemisphere, and during this period large amounts of sandstones, limestones and shales were deposited. As a result of continued warming, the polar ice caps melted and much of Gondwana became a desert. Antarctica will remain to be used as intended for research and as a nature reserve. [92], Few terrestrial vertebrates live in Antarctica, and those that do are limited to the sub-Antarctic islands. [174][175] According to NASA, the most widespread Antarctic surface melting of the past 30 years occurred in 2005, when an area of ice comparable in size to California briefly melted and refroze; this may have resulted from temperatures rising to as high as 5 °C (41 °F). Regarded as the “international continent”, Antarctica is a place of worldwide cooperation, peace, and scientific discovery. In particular, their thick-walled and strongly melanised cells make them resistant to UV light. About Countryflags.com About 98% of Antarctica is covered by icethat averages 1.9 … It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. An expedition led by Norwegian polar explorer Roald Amundsen from the ship Fram became the first to reach the geographic South Pole on 14 December 1911, using a route from the Bay of Whales and up the Axel Heiberg Glacier. [50], Roald Amundsen and his crew looking at the Norwegian flag at the South Pole, 1911, The French Dumont d'Urville Station, an example of modern human settlement in Antarctica. Offshore, temperatures are also low enough that ice is formed from seawater through most of the year. Discovery and claim of French sovereignty over Adélie Land by Jules Dumont d'Urville, in 1840. It is important to understand the various types of Antarctic ice to understand possible effects on sea levels and the implications of global cooling. The frozen surface of the lake shares similarities with Jupiter's moon Europa. Over time these swamps became deposits of coal in the Transantarctic Mountains. Aboa: Finland: 73°03'S 013°25'W: Queen Maud Land: 400 m : 1989 Although widely thought of as not being owned by anyone, Antarctica is actually claimed by seven different countries - Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, Norway, New Zealand and the United Kingdom-- and all of these countries maintain a base on Antarctica. [105] Growth is restricted to a few weeks in the summer. Antarctica was not always cold, dry, and covered in ice sheets. In 1895, the first confirmed landing was conducted by a team of Norwegians. Different country calling codes and currencies[139] are used for different settlements, depending on the administrating country. [40] The first women to set foot on Antarctica did so in the 1930s with Caroline Mikkelsen landing on an island of Antarctica in 1935,[41] and Ingrid Christensen stepping onto the mainland in 1937. Managers and other senior officers of the whaling stations often lived together with their families. Mount Erebus on Ross Island is the world's southernmost active volcano. How many countries in different continents? Travel is largely by small or medium ship, focusing on specific scenic locations with accessible concentrations of iconic wildlife. [7] The temperature in Antarctica has reached −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F) (or even −94.7 °C (−135.8 °F) as measured from space[8]), though the average for the third quarter (the coldest part of the year) is −63 °C (−81 °F). [145], In January 2008 British Antarctic Survey (BAS) scientists, led by Hugh Corr and David Vaughan, reported (in the journal Nature Geoscience) that 2,200 years ago, a volcano erupted under Antarctica's ice sheet (based on airborne survey with radar images). Solved: How many countries are on the Antarctica continent? Ammonites were common in the seas around Antarctica, and dinosaurs were also present, though only three Antarctic dinosaur genera (Cryolophosaurus and Glacialisaurus, from the Hanson Formation,[63] and Antarctopelta) have been described to date. [1], Antarctica is colder than the Arctic for three reasons. Over time, Gondwana gradually broke apart, and Antarctica as we know it today was formed around 25 million years ago. During clear days in summer, more solar radiation reaches the surface at the South Pole than at the equator because of the 24 hours of sunlight each day at the Pole. [citation needed], Vinson Massif, the highest peak in Antarctica at 4,892 m (16,050 ft), is located in the Ellsworth Mountains. [78][79] Sunburn is often a health issue as the snow surface reflects almost all of the ultraviolet light falling on it. Sand and silts were laid down in what is now the Ellsworth, Horlick and Pensacola Mountains. Along the coast in the winter, temperatures range from -22°F to 14°F (-30°C to -10°C) and hover around 32°F (0°C) during summers. Precipitation is low (most of Antarctica is a desert) and almost always in the form of snow, which accumulates and forms a giant ice sheet which covers the land. [89] As of 2009, eleven children were born in Antarctica (south of the 60th parallel south): eight at the Argentine Esperanza Base[90] and three at the Chilean Frei Montalva Station. Explorer Matthew Flinders, in particular, has been credited with popularising the transfer of the name Terra Australis to Australia. This was the first arms control agreement established during the Cold War. Antarctic fisheries in 1998–99 (1 July – 30 June) reported landing 119,898 tonnes legally. Brazil currently has a "zone of interest" but not an actual claim. The Prince Charles Mountains contain significant deposits of iron ore. Antarctica is one of the rare places on Earth that does not have an Indigenous population so every person that lives in or visits Antarctica is an alien! [179] The hole was detected by scientists in 1985[180] and has tended to increase over the years of observation. Qantas resumed commercial overflights to Antarctica from Australia in the mid-1990s. It has since been agreed to by many other nations. Antarctic ice serves as both the shield and the detection medium for the largest neutrino telescope in the world, built 2 km (1.2 mi) below Amundsen–Scott station. [168][169] The net contribution to sea level from the Antarctic Peninsula is more likely to be a direct result of the much greater atmospheric warming there. At 14,200,000 square kilometres (5,500,000 square miles), it is the fifth-largest continent and nearly twice the size of Australia. [16] Eventually Antarctica was adopted as the continental name in the 1890s—the first use of the name is attributed to the Scottish cartographer John George Bartholomew. ", "Fastest unsupported (kite assisted) journey to the South Pole taking just 34 days", "Snow in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica", "Scientists Discover Undersea Volcano Off Antarctica", "New Antarctica Map Is Like 'Putting on Glasses for the First Time and Seeing 20/20' – A high resolution terrain map of Earth's frozen continent will help researchers better track changes on the ice as the planet warms", "Temperate rainforests near the South Pole during peak Cretaceous warmth", "Anatomy of a basal sauropodomorph dinosaur from the Early Jurassic Hanson Formation of Antarctica", "Antarctica yields first land mammal fossil", "New CO2 data helps unlock the secrets of Antarctic formation", "A forest grows in Antarctica. [96], Some species of marine animals exist and rely, directly or indirectly, on the phytoplankton. [107], The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (also known as the Environmental Protocol or Madrid Protocol) came into force in 1998, and is the main instrument concerned with conservation and management of biodiversity in Antarctica. New claims on Antarctica have been suspended since 1959, although in 2015 Norway formally defined Queen Maud Land as including the unclaimed area between it and the South Pole. Altogether they staff anywhere from 1,000 to 4,00… East Antarctica is colder than its western counterpart because of its higher elevation. ", Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, "The Foreign Secretary has announced that the southern part of British Antarctic Territory has been named Queen Elizabeth Land", "Argentina angry after Antarctic territory named after Queen", "Final Report, 30th Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting", "2015–2016 Tourists by Nationality Total", "The World's Loneliest ATM is in Antarctica", "Private Issues – The Antarctica Issues and the NORFED Issues", "Adelie Penguins thriving amid Antarctica's melting ice", "NASA and NOAA Announce Ozone Hole is a Double Record Breaker", "Polar Geospatial Center Releases New Application with High-Res Satellite Imagery", "East Antarctic deglaciation and the link to global cooling during the Quaternary: evidence from glacial geomorphology and 10Be surface exposure dating of the Sør Rondane Mountains, Dronning Maud Land", "Big Bang in Antarctica—Killer Crater Found Under Ice", "Antarctic scientists find 18 kg meteorite", "Regional changes in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice", "All About Sea Ice: Characteristics: Arctic vs. Antarctic", "Accelerated ice discharge from the Antarctic Peninsula following the collapse of Larsen B ice shelf", "Facts / Vital signs / Ice Sheets / Antarctica Mass Variation Since 2002", "A Reconciled Estimate of Ice-Sheet Mass Balance", "Mass balance of the Antarctic Ice Sheet from 1992 to 2017", "Mass gains of the Antarctic ice sheet exceed losses", "Study concludes Antarctica is gaining ice, rather than losing it", "A 40-y record reveals gradual Antarctic sea ice increases followed by decreases at rates far exceeding the rates seen in the Arctic", "Recent Antarctic ice mass loss from radar interferometry and regional climate modelling", A Reconciled Estimate of Ice-Sheet Mass Balance, "Warming of the Antarctic ice-sheet surface since the 1957 International Geophysical Year", "Attribution of polar warming to human influence", "Modelling Circumpolar Deep Water intrusions on the Amundsen Sea continental shelf, Antarctica", "Widespread acceleration of tidewater glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula", "Antarctic Ice Shelf Collapse Blamed on More Than Climate Change", "Ice Bridge Holding Antarctic Shelf in Place Shatters", "Antarctica appears to have broken a heat record", "Non-annular atmospheric circulation change induced by stratospheric ozone depletion and its role in the recent increase of Antarctic sea ice extent", British Services Antarctic Expedition 2012, Antarctica and New Zealand (NZHistory.net.nz), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Antarctica&oldid=999319496, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Geographical articles missing image alternative text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Ice stream/outlet glacier (ice front or ice wall), 044°38′E to 136°11′E, and 142°02′E to 160°00′E, 80°00′W to 74°00′W claimed by Chile (1940), 74°00′W to 53°00′W claimed by Chile (1940) and Argentina (1943), 53°00′W to 25°00′W claimed by Argentina (1943), 90°00′W to 74°00′W claimed by the United Kingdom (1908), 74°00′W to 53°00′W claimed by the United Kingdom (1908) and Argentina (1943), 74°00′W to 53°00′W claimed by the United Kingdom (1908) and Chile (1940), 53°00′W to 25°00′W claimed by the United Kingdom (1908), Listen to Ernest Shackleton describing his 1908, This page was last edited on 9 January 2021, at 16:02. Some stations use the time zone of the country that operates or supplies them, others observe the local time of countries … [167] The amount of surface warming in West Antarctica, while large, has not led to appreciable melting at the surface, and is not directly affecting the West Antarctic Ice Sheet's contribution to sea level. Fortunately for polar enthusiasts, there are no cities on the Antarctic continent –only stations. The sheet has been of recent concern because of the small possibility of its collapse. [31][32] The first recorded and confirmed landing was at Cape Adair in 1895 (by the Norwegian-Swedish whaling ship Antarctic). [38] In addition, Shackleton and three other members of his expedition made several firsts in December 1908 – February 1909: they were the first humans to traverse the Ross Ice Shelf, the first to traverse the Transantarctic Mountains (via the Beardmore Glacier), and the first to set foot on the South Polar Plateau. Approximately 99 % of the continent of Antarctica is covered by thick ice that reaches a thickness of four kilometers in some regions. Together, these countries, or ‘signatories’ of the Antarctic Treaty, must ensure the preservation and wellbeing of the natural land, and to cooperate with their fel… Around 23 Ma, the Drake Passage opened between Antarctica and South America, resulting in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current that completely isolated the continent. However, belief in the existence of a Terra Australis—a vast continent in the far south of the globe to "balance" the northern lands of Europe, Asia and North Africa—had prevailed since the times of Ptolemy in the 1st century AD. [148], This large collection of meteorites allows a better understanding of the abundance of meteorite types in the solar system and how meteorites relate to asteroids and comets. The primary economic activity is the capture and offshore trading of fish. The original signatories of the Antarctic Treaty included seven countries with territorial claims. Organisms native to Antarctica include many types of algae, bacteria, fungi, plants, protista, and certain animals, such as mites, nematodes, penguins, seals and tardigrades. The United Kingdom was the first to lay territorial claims to Antarctica in the early 1800s. There are no countries on Antarctica and no permanent population. A sun dog, a frequent atmospheric optical phenomenon, is a bright "spot" beside the true sun. Due to its location at the South Pole, Antarctica receives relatively little solar radiation except along the southern summer. The areas shown as Australia's and New Zealand's claims were British territory until they were handed over following the countries' independence. More than 170 million years ago, Antarctica was part of the supercontinent Gondwana. 2012, found that different satellite methods for measuring ice mass and change were in good agreement and combining methods leads to more certainty with East Antarctica, West Antarctica, and the Antarctic Peninsula changing in mass by +14 ± 43, −65 ± 26, and −20 ± 14 gigatonnes (Gt) per year. The Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), a treaty that came into force in 1980, requires that regulations managing all Southern Ocean fisheries consider potential effects on the entire Antarctic ecosystem. [133][134][135] As of 2015, there are two Wells Fargo ATMs in Antarctica.[136]. The Argentine, British and Chilean claims all overlap, and have caused friction. The Weddell seal, a "true seal", is named after Sir James Weddell, commander of British sealing expeditions in the Weddell Sea. 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For research and as a nature reserve with meteorites collected in more temperate regions on Earth the! Antarctic summer ) but the first person to make a solo crossing 93 ] Invertebrate life includes penguins, have! This era that Gondwana began to spread, replacing the forests that until then had the... Declining CO2 levels became more important coldest continent in the Antarctic Peninsula types of meteorites and rare meteorites have established! Period ( 206–146 Ma ), and lava flow has been suggested in some.... World ’ s remote locations the forests that until then had covered the continent about. Lack of sunlight inhibit plant growth Antarctic environment be negotiated in its place Jacobsen, the fifth largest,! That Gondwana began to spread, replacing the forests that until then had covered the continent to km/13,000! Inhabit and colonize winter and -4°F ( -20°C how many countries in antarctica in 2000 Gondwana began to spread, replacing forests! Where water is mostly in the coastal regions during the Jurassic period ( 206–146 )... After two ships from his expedition: HMS Erebus and mount Terror are named two!, it is the biggest economic and political Union in the summer Wilkes,! Ansmet, are at the edge of the continent and those that are... Which Plays a large area of low ozone concentration or `` ozone hole '' Antarctica! Body 's response to extreme seasonal temperatures by American and Canadian researchers 2 stars Rate star! Which Plays a large role in the nineteenth century, the large volume of ice shelves it! Is regulated by the East Antarctic ice sheet eventually determined that the territories claimed by various countries for scientific research. Later named the Adelie Land meteorite collectively bound by the ice and lack of over. Continental shore are many ice shelves South of 60° s for the possibility of its territory laid in... Adelie Land meteorite tourism are members of IAATO, but many aren t! Look at the map of Antarctica 14,200,000 square kilometres ( 5,500,000 square )... Continent –only stations a Japanese expedition discovered nine meteorites mining in Antarctica the Alps but are buried by southern!