Helium equilibration was considered to be complete when the change in helium concentration was less than 0.02% for 30 seconds (5, 20). 2nd ed. Upper limit of normal (ULN) range was calculated as predicted value + RSD × 1.645. These results underscore the importance of using prediction equations appropriate to the age and height characteristics of the population to whom inferences are to be applied. American Thoracic Society. Chan ED, Welsh CH. TABLE 5. Age, gender, body composition, and ethnicity are factors affecting the different ranges of lung capacity among individuals. Sixty-one subjects (9.8% of men and 13.4% of women) were excluded from analysis because of claustrophobia (n = 2), incapacity to perform satisfactory panting maneuvers (n = 37), or repeated disconnections from the test gas during rebreathing (n = 22) (Figure 1). ■ Gender is taken in consideration as men usually have higher pulmonary volumes than women. Most lungs mature to this point between the ages of 20 and 25, but they don’t stay at that capacity forever, or even for very long. eurogip.fr. If your lung volume results fall outside of this normal range, this may suggest you have an obstructive or restrictive lung condition. Our results confirm that reference equations should not be extrapolated, in general, for ages or heights beyond those covered by the data that generated them. In any case, the differences obtained between plethysmography and helium dilution are notable, as demonstrated by the wide limits of agreement for TLC (−0.29 to 0.73 L in women and −0.22 to 0.79 L in men) (see Figure 2). Your lungs mature by the time you are about 20-25 years old. The current international guidelines recommend that reference equations should not be extrapolated for ages or heights beyond those covered by the data that generated them. In fact, predicted values for older individuals are often based upon few observations or upon extrapolations from data acquired in studies of younger adults. Total lung capacity: Volume of air that is in the respiratory system at the end of a maximum possible ... and TLC. The contractile properties of the elderly human diaphragm. Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurements. Normal Lung Capacity Percentage . LUNGFUNCTION,AGEANDHEIGHT Ageandheightwerefoundto bestronglyassociated with FEVI and FVC. Total lung capacity is the volume of air in the lungs at the end of maximal inspiration. However, the inclusion of BSA in the prediction equations for FRC may lead to misinterpretation of the results. The correlation coefficients between FEV, and age were-0-26 in men and 54 Protected by copyright. Thank you! The average total lung capacity of an adult human male is about 6 litres of air. The selection of prediction equations for comparison was based on common use (4–10). FEV1 4.55 (litres) 129% (1/3 more) - Well above average. The second group of 30 patients with an average Cobb angle of 33° were not operated on. In contrast, only 0.6 to 1.7% of the women and 0.1 to 0.3% of the men were above the upper limit of normal of plethysmographic RV. Results From 4385 records screened, we identified 16 cohort studies with 31 099 participants. A number of physiological factors like age, gender, height and ethnicity effect lung volumes. These are the basic elements of a ventilatory pulmonary function test. *The lower limit of normal is computed as: predicted value – 1.645 × RSD. Total lung capacity is the volume of air in the lungs at the end of maximal inspiration. FRCHe was the mean of two technically acceptable measurements that agreed by less than 10%. Two groups of patients, with an average age of 15 years, have been studied to establish the improvement in pulmonary function after surgical correction in relation to the amount of correction achieved. Real Age: 65. My dad has asthma and his is 450. Although many reference equations for FRC only consider age and height (4–7), those of Cordero (9), Roca (8), and Cotes (10) include other body measurements, such as weight, BMI, or BSA. Philadelphia, PA: W.R. Saunders; Mays PK, Rishop JE, Laurent GJ. Difference between plethysmographic FRC and mean FRC predicted by the present study versus (A) ECSC and colleagues (5), (B) Crapo and colleagues (4), (C) Cordero and colleagues (9), (D) Roca and colleagues (8), (E) Matthys and colleagues (7), and (F) Cotes and colleagues (10) in women. Among healthy adults, the average lung capacity is about 6 liters. In men, the closest TLC agreements were with Crapo and colleagues (4) and Cordero and coworkers (9), for FRC with Crapo and coworkers (4) and Cotes and colleagues (10), and for RV with Matthys and colleagues (2) and Crapo and coworkers (4). Vital capacity of normal adults ranges between 3 to 5 litres. Thank you! Join over 500,000 people who receive the latest news about lung health, including COVID-19, research, air quality, inspiring stories and resources. A detailed description of the exclusion criteria and the subject selection procedure is contained in the online supplement. Total lung capacity can be found by adding the vital capacity and the residual volume. Reference ranges for spirometry across all ages: a new approach. Biochemical studies suggest that the total lung content of collagen and elastin does not change with ageing and that the collagen becomes more stable because of increased numbers of intermolecular crosslinks (27). Age-related changes in the proportion of types I and III collagen. This study provides the first reported data on reference equations for static lung volumes in older adults. There are several natural body changes that happen as you get older that may cause a decline in lung capacity. Your lungs mature by the time you are about 20-25 years old. In anatomy class we measured our vital capacity--the volume of air that can be forcibly exhaled after taking a deep breath. That is about three large soda bottles. This gives us a vital lung capacity of about 3.6 liters. Table 6.2.1 . Your diaphragm can get weaker, preventing you from fully breathing in and out. Inspiratory-total lung capacity ratio predicts mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The authors thank A. Alvarez. Some authors have defined the LLN as that value above which the results of 95% of the normal population lie, working under the assumption that larger values have larger variances. Middle-aged reference equations classify subjects as being below the plethysmographic TLC LLN between 11.8 and 55.5% of the women and between 14.1 and 25.9% of the men of the current study. Inhaled at birth, it is not exhaled until death because the rib cage prevents total lung collapse. For most people, the maximum lung capacity we reach in our lives is about six liters of air. Rraman SS. These results (see Table 6.2.1) also show that the relationship between lung volumes and height changes with age. If your lung volume results fall outside of this normal range, this may suggest you have an obstructive or restrictive lung condition. Physicians and scientific researchers opine that human lungs attain peak performance between the ages of 20 and 25. Roca J, Burgos F, Barbera JA, Sunyer J, Rodriguez-Roisin R, Castellsagué J, Sanchos J, Antó JM, Casan P, Clausen JL. Difference between plethysmographic FRC and mean FRC predicted by the present study versus (A) ECSC and colleagues (5), (B) Crapo and colleagues (4), (C) Cordero and colleagues (9), (D) ROCA and colleagues (8), (E) Matthys and colleagues (7), and (F) Cotes and colleagues (10) in men. Did you know that the maximum amount of air your lungs can hold—your total lung capacity—is about 6 liters? These are the three factors accounted in the estimation: ■ Age is used as factor in the calculation as VC increases during the 20s and 30s and then follows a steady decrease towards the 50s. ratio) at different ages (Kalt-reider and others, 1938; Robinson, 1938; Bates andChristie, 1950; Greifenstein, King, Latch, and Comroe, 1952). So h=160 and a=14. Also your rib cage bones can change and get smaller which leaves less room for your lungs to expand. That being said, "lung capacity" is a generic term, and can generally fall into two terms. Flow chart for subject selection. Partially fill a large bucket with water and use the water to fill a 2 liter soda bottle. After about the age of 35, it is normal for … In the multiple linear regression analysis, predictor variables were retained only if their addition significantly improved the fraction of explained variability (R2). A spirometer is the instrument used in the health profession to accurately measure lung capacity. Aging: the normal lung. Around the age of 30 we begin to lose our lung capacity. Among healthy adults, the average lung capacity is about 6 liters. Spirometry is a diagnostic test that provides different measures of lung capacity. Lung Age: 36. You’ve been successfully subscribed to our newsletter! Age, gender, body composition, and ethnicity are factors affecting the different ranges of lung capacity among individuals. This can make breathing slightly more difficult as you get older. Objectives: To provide reference equations for static lung volumes for European adults 65 to 85 years of age and to compare the predicted values of this sample with those from other studies including middle-aged adults. Reference values for residual volume, functional residual capacity and total lung capacity. Everybody’s vital lung capacity is different depending on factors such as their age and fitness levels. The first group of 33 patients were treated surgically; an average Cobb angle of 72° was reduced to 32.6°. Airway resistance was computed from pressure and flow measurements breathing warm, moist air fulfilling BTPS conditions (21). If using bromothymol blue, be careful not to ingest it. Table 1 showsthe meanheight andbodymassindicesofthe subjects in various age and sex groups. A decrease in lung function is a normal part of the aging process but there are steps you can take to stay as healthy as possible. The differences between predicted values based on the prediction equations from the present study and others are given as Bland and Altman plots. Could this reflect a difference in lung capacity between the ages? Minette A. Questionnaire of the European Community for Coal and Steel (ECSC) on respiratory symptoms. P. Librán, A. Pérez, and C. Suárez for technical assistance. A reduction in diaphragmatic strength, by about 25% in healthy elderly subjects compared with young adults (25), must have some effect on TLC. When our respiratory function is impaired by that much it means that less oxygen is getting into our blood stream and thus less oxygen is getting to our cells. The average total lung capacity of an adult is between 4 and 6 liters, according to Family Practice Notebook. Rationale: In elderly subjects, static lung volumes are interpreted using prediction equations derived from primarily younger adult populations.. By age 50 the upper limit of our lung capacity may only be 50% of what it was in our youth. Differences among studies in predictions of lung volumes or in the identification of individuals with lung function values outside the limits of normal may be due to differences in the age range of the reference subjects but are also likely to be contributed to by different measurement methods and other differences in the underlying populations. And here we are with not only the pandemic but environmental factors challenging ur lungs more than ever before. Les capacités pulmonaires diminuent avec l'âge [...] avec, en contrepartie, une endurance plus longue si l'effort n'est pas trop intense. Regarding dilutional lung volumes, in women the closest agreements for TLC were with Crapo and colleagues (4) and ECSC (5), whereas the closest for FRC was with Cordero and coworkers (9) and ECSC (5) and for RV with Cordero and colleagues (9) and Matthys and coworkers (7). TLC rapid increases from birth to adolescence and plateaus at around 25 years old. Conclusions: These results underscore the importance of using prediction equations appropriate to the origin, age, and height characteristics of the subjects being studied. Figure 4. form the lung function tests satisfactorily. Expiratory reserve volume (ERV) and inspiratory VC were measured during the same maneuver. To our knowledge, the current study provides the first data in the international literature on reference values for static lung volumes and airway resistance in healthy older adults. Mine was only 3500 mL, which is more than 1000 mL less than the 4600 mL average for someone my age, gender, and height (18 yr, male, and 1.8 meters). Measurements of vital capacity and total lung capacity were made on 39 healthy male physicians and laboratory workers ranging from 21 to 44 years of age. The age distribution of the women and men in the analyzed sample demonstrates adequate representation of the study population (see Table E1 in the online supplement). FRCpleth was reported as the mean of three or more measurements that differed by less than 5%. The upper limit of normal is computed as: predicted value + 1.645 × RSD. Average Lung Capacity By Age. • Residual volume (RV) is the amount of air remaining within the lung after maximum exhalation. For example, females tend to have a 20-25% lower capacity than males. In the range between 120 and 206 cm. Lung function tests were performed with a MasterLab 4.6 system (Jaeger, Wurtzburg, Germany). The main limitation of applying prediction equations derived from primarily younger adult populations to older adults might come from the morphologic and functional changes in the respiratory system related to ageing (12, 13). An example of the overprediction of lung volumes is provided by the estimation of healthy subjects below or over the limits of normal. Lung volumes in healthy non-smoking adults. Lung Changes With Age. Join the 500,000+ people getting our newsletter! Physiological changes in respiratory function associated with ageing. Of the 382 subjects (231 women and 151 men) who entered into the study, we found technically acceptable tests for 321 (189 women and 132 men). At the end of rebreathing, a number of ERV and VC maneuvers were performed to calculate TLCHe and RVHe. Prediction equations for plethysmographic lung volumes. Did you know that the maximum amount of air your lungs can hold—your total lung capacity—is about 6 liters? The residuals corresponding to these models did not differ significantly from a Gaussian distribution in all lung volumes, as determined by the Shapiro-Wilk test. An African-American woman who is 5 feet, 5 inches tall would typically have a vital capacity of about 3.4 liters at age 25, just over 3 liters at age 50, and approximately 2.3 liters at age 75. Paul Jackson Mansfield DPT, BS, MS, Donald A. Neumann PhD, PT, FAPTA, in Essentials of Kinesiology for the Physical Therapist Assistant (Third Edition), 2019. Lung Volume Reference Values for Women and Men 65 to 85 Years of Age. Lung Volumes. Lung function testing: selection of reference values and interpretative strategies. That is about three large soda bottles. Following all of these simple tips will help you continue to breathe well throughout your lifetime. Aging and the lung: physiology and clinical consequences. As depicted, the total lung capacity is about 5½ liters of air; however, most of this capacity is not used during normal breathing. Get updates and fact-based advice to help protect yourself and your family during the COVID-19 pandemic. No significant interaction between age and height was found. Around the age of 30 we begin to lose our lung capacity. The average 14 year old teenager is about 160 cm tall. The study was approved by the local Ethics Committee, and informed consent was obtained from all subjects. What Is Normal Lung Capacity. The average human respiratory rate is 30–60 breaths per minute at birth, decreasing to 12–20 breaths per minute in adults. Kurozumi M, Matsushita T, Hosokawa M, Takeda T. Age-related changes in lung structure and function in the senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM): SAM-P/1 as a new murine model of senile hyperinflation of lung. Click to see any corrections or updates and to confirm this is the authentic version of record. Consult a doctor if you are concerned about any lung-related changes. In conclusion, we have developed reference equations for the prediction of static lung volumes in older adults. That being said, "lung capacity" is a generic term, and can generally fall into two terms. Our reference equations may be used for the prediction of lung volumes in white patients 65 to 85 years of age with standing heights for women between 144 and 174 cm and men between 152 and 181 cm. Total lung capacity (TLC) is the amount of air the lung can contain at the height of maximum inspiratory effort. We compare the lung volumes by plethysmography and helium dilution in elderly subjects. For patients over 65 years of age, the current study shows that the most commonly used sets of reference equations may lead to inaccurate interpretations. Like many bodily systems and functions, the lungs reach peak maturity at a relatively early age and then gradually decline. Definition of abbreviations: BMI = body mass index; BSA = body surface area; ERV = expiratory reserve volume; FRCHe = functional residual capacity by helium dilution; FRCpleth = functional residual capacity by plethysmography; IC = inspiratory capacity; IRV = inspiratory reserve volume; Raw = airway resistance; RVHe = residual volume by helium dilution; RVpleth = residual volume by plethysmography; sRaw = specific airway resistance; TLCHe = total lung capacity by helium dilution; TLCpleth = total lung capacity by plethysmography. Statistical significance was assumed for P < 0.05. Lung health at age 25 isn’t the same as lung health at age 35, and so on. Although the proportion of individuals older than 65 years of age is increasing, many of the reference equations commonly used for predicting normal lung volume values in North America and Europe have been derived from studies that included relatively small numbers of individuals over 65 years of age (4–11). It is based on a formula which aims to facilitate the calculation of VC when physical measurement testing is not possible. Murray JF. This site uses cookies. Plug this into our equation and we get that the vital lung capacity (V) is about 2.1 liters. Normal Lung Capacity By Age The respiration rate for elderly … https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.200901-0127OC, −0.00889 – 0.0365 A + 0.05085 H – 0.0518 BMI, 1.717 + 0.005391 A – 0.0117 H + 0.000000414 W. Pellegrino R, Viegi G, Brusasco V, Crapo RO, Burgos F, Casaburi R, Coates A, van der Grinten CPM, Gustafsson P, Hankinson J. Pellegrino R, Brusasco V. Lung hyperinflation and flow limitation in chronic airway obstruction. Your lungs mature by the time you are about 20-25 years old. So h=130 and a=6. In addition to the increased closing volume, this can be justified by the age-related weakness of the expiratory muscles. This health tool estimates vital capacity based on subject gender, age and height in centimeters. Based on that I will experiment with two kind of subjects in order to measure their lung capacity and get conclusions about the results. Despite the absence of airway obstruction in our subjects, the existence of poorly- or nonventilated airspaces or a premature closure of the airways during tidal breathing (13) could explain the lower lung volumes obtained by helium dilution. The aims of this paper are to provide reference equations for static lung volumes for a cohort of healthy never-smoking white European adults between 65 and 85 years of age and to compare the predicted values of this sample with those from other studies including middle-aged adults. Remarkable differences in these predicted values may be ascribed to the selection of subjects and to methodologic or technical differences in the assessment. *Lower limit of normal range (LLN) was calculated as predicted value – RSD × 1.645. Lung capacity can be increased through breathing exercises, good nutrition and exercise which all work together to make your lungs function more efficiently. The ECSC reference equations (5, 6) were not based on original data; rather, they were derived from previously published reference equations. Share your voice and advocate for policies that will save lives. Mizuno M. Human respiratory muscles: fiber morphology and capillary supply. Values are expressed as mean ± SD. To avoid this problem, we have generated another set of reference equations without weight-related factors (see Table 4). It refers to the average age of a nonsmoker with a forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1) equal to that of the person being tested. Older persons were not included in order to avoid the well-known effects of age on vital capacity. Polkey MI, Harris ML, Hughes PD, Hamnegärd CH, Lyons D, Green M, Moxham J. Design Systematic review. Increasing Lung Capacity as We Age by Wellness Editor. Obesity and pulmonary function, more or less? Stocks J, Quanjer PH. Objective To conduct a systematic review investigating the normal age-related changes in lung function in adults without known lung disease. For comparisons among authors, LLN was calculated using the RSD of the corresponding equation. Subjects were weighed and measured while wearing indoor clothing without shoes, and body mass index (BMI) and body surface area (BSA) were calculated. Vital capacity of normal adults ranges between 3 to 5 litres. COMPARISON BETWEEN OBSERVED PLETHYSMOGRAPHIC LUNG VOLUMES AND THE PREDICTED VALUES DERIVED FROM DIFFERENT REFERENCE EQUATIONS. Rebreathing started from the resting end-expiratory position and ended after 5 to 7 minutes. All other lung volumes are natural subdivisions of TLC. Moreover, the data on TLC, RV, and FRC are derived from populations that include smokers and exsmokers (6); therefore, these equations may not be representative of a healthy nonsmoking population. It can be dependent on age, sex, height etc and it falls as it grows. The age-related decrease in diaphragmatic strength (24) reduces maximal respiratory pressures in healthy elderly subjects (25) and can consequently reduce inspiratory capacity. Total Lung capacity is dependent upon many factors such as weight, sex, age and activity. No significant differences in these parameters were found between excluded subjects and the analyzed sample. LUNG VOLUME PREDICTION EQUATIONS FOR HEALTHY ELDERLY EUROPEAN WOMEN*. Total lung capacity can be subdivided into vital capacity and residual volume. Figure 3. Bland JM, Altman DG. Miller MR, Hankinson J, Brusasco V, Bugos F, Casaburi R, Coates A, Crapo R, Enright P, van der Grinten CP, Gustafsson P. Wanger J, Clausen JL, Coates A, Pedersen OF, Brusasco V, Burgos F, Casaburi R, Crapo R, Enright P, van der Grinten CP. The maximum amount of air an adult male can hold is 6 litres, and your lungs mature by the time you are about 20-25 years old. Reference values and lower and upper limits of normal were derived using a piecewise polynomial model. Lung Age is a term referring to the age of lungs of human with regard to many factors such as smoking, air pollution, etc. Roca and coworkers (8) and Matthys and colleagues (7) clearly overestimated FRCpleth in men. Staying active, avoiding tobacco smoke and stay up to date on vaccinations are just a few ways you can protect and even strengthen your lungs. Middle-aged reference equations classify subjects as being below the total lung capacity lower limit of normal between 17.9 and 62.5% of the women and between 12.5 and 42.2% of the men of the current study. Screening was based on a combination of questionnaire on respiratory symptoms (18), physical examination, and chest radiograph and electrocardiography evaluation. Lung volume and capacity are important metrics to differentiate a normal lung from a diseased lung. 13.15 shows the lung volumes and capacities in the normal adult. In addition to the obvious consequences that these alterations might have on static lung volumes, the calculation of these volumes might be affected by the measurement procedures used. The average 6 year old kid is about 120 cm tall. After about the age of 35, their function declines as you age, and as a result, breathing can slowly become more difficult over time. Went back to my Primary today I I got my test results: FEV1 Is 66% but my lung age is 98 That does not sound good but scared. Men normally have bigger lungs than women and taller people generally have larger lungs than shorter people. The biggest reason for this is simple: our lungs’ ability to hold air changes as we get older. male: vital capacity(ml)=(27.63−0.112×age)×height(cm) female: vital capacity(ml)=(21.78−0.101×age)×height(cm) Differences between lung volumes measured by plethysmography and helium dilution plotted against the mean of the two values for TLC, FRC, and residual volume (RV) in healthy elderly women and men. A helium thermal conductivity analyzer was used. Rank of the mean square difference is shown. Lung capacity or total lung capacity (TLC) is the volume of air in the lungs upon the maximum effort of inspiration. Air sacs may lose their shape. If you are the one who gets all volume and capacities mixed up, this article will help you clear the concept. Some examples of spirometry measurements are: Learn more about when spirometry is needed, how it’s performed and understanding results. As a result of the diminished lung elastic recoil, an increase in RV by approximately 50% between 20 and 70 years of age has been reported (13). Normal results typically range between 80% and 120% of the prediction. Lung volumes were compared by paired Student's t test, and agreement between pairs was analyzed (21). A number of physiological factors like age, gender, height and ethnicity effect lung volumes. By the age of 50, our lung capacity may be reduced by as much as 50 percent . LUNG VOLUME PREDICTION EQUATIONS FOR HEALTHY ELDERLY EUROPEAN MEN*, TABLE 4. The values for women are typically about 10% less than those for men of the same age and height. Moreover, because most of the studies were performed at least two decades ago, they may not fit present-day populations due to cohort effects. As a consequence of changes in the spatial arrangement or crosslinking of the elastic fiber network (29), a homogeneous enlargement of air spaces occurs, followed by discrete lung hyperinflation. In elderly subjects, static lung volume measurements are interpreted using prediction equations derived from primarily younger adult populations. It was recently revealed that Grant Hacket, an Australian swimmer and one of the supreme athletes of world sport, has a whopping 13 liter lung capacity. Lung Volume Chart. The average human lungs hold about 5 liters of air. *Lower limit of normal (LLN) range was calculated as predicted value – RSD × 1.645. Also, notable differences exist in the technique used to determine lung volumes. Lung capacity declines with age, with, on the [...] other hand, longer endurance for efforts that are not too intense. Lung capacity varies widely depending on a person’s age, sex, weight and activity level. As we get older, the diaphragm gets weaker, decreasing the ability to inhale and exhale. The average total lung capacity of an adult human male is about 6 litres of air.. Respiratory muscle strength in the elderly: correlates and reference values. Matthys H, Zaiss AW, Theissen JL, Virchow JCJR, Werner P. Definition, normal reference and measured values to diagnose obstructive, restrictive and mixed ventilatory defects for clinical lung function evaluation. Tables 5 and 6 show the differences between the observed values found in the subjects of our study and the values calculated from several prediction equations. In anatomy class we measured our vital capacity--the volume of air that can be forcibly exhaled after taking a deep breath. You've been successfully subscribed to our newsletter! The following changes can occur in your lungs as you age: Airways can get smaller. Plug this into our equation and we get that the vital lung capacity (V) is about 2.1 liters. Structural changes associated with ageing include smaller airway size, an increase in alveolar duct diameter with a concomitant change in the morphology of the alveolar sacs (which become larger), a decrease in lung elastic tissue, and an increase in lung collagen concentrations and in the proportion of type III collagen (12, 14, 15). The average 6 year old kid is about 120 cm tall. Pulm Perspectives, Northbrook, IL. Talk to our experts at the American Lung Association Lung HelpLine and Tobacco QuitLine. Copyright © 1987-2020 American Thoracic Society, All Rights Reserved. However, the existence of air trapping in elderly subjects might result in a significant underestimation of true lung volumes measured by helium dilution as compared with plethysmography. The closed circuit was filled with a mixture of 10% He, 35% O2, and 55% N2. Fig. Janssens JP, Pache JC, Nicod LP. survey, 14 of them being sickle cell trait patients (SCT) with their ages average at 25 ± 2,16 years, their weight at 65 ± 5,45 kg and their average height is 1,75 ± 0,08 m, while the Average (6-10 days) Material Availability: Bromothymol blue is a specialty chemical which can be ordered from an online vendor. Lung tissue that helps keep your airways open can lose elasticity, which means your airways can get a little smaller. The residual volume is usually 25 % of the TLC while the Vital capacity makes up the other 75%. Practically all the estimations made by extrapolation of reference equations for middle-aged adults overpredicted the true lung volumes of our healthy elderly volunteers.

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